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Intranasal oxymetazoline and thrombin for the treatment of epistaxis - abstracted references


Akkan, S., S. K. Corbacioglu, et al. (2019). "Evaluating Effectiveness of Nasal Compression With Tranexamic Acid Compared With Simple Nasal Compression and Merocel Packing: A Randomized Controlled Trial." Ann Emerg Med 74(1): 72-78.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of 3 treatment protocols to stop anterior epistaxis: classic compression, nasal packing, and local application of tranexamic acid. It also aims to determine the frequency of rebleeding after each of these protocols. METHODS: This single-center, prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted with patients who had spontaneous anterior epistaxis. The study compared the effect of 3 treatment options, tranexamic acid with compression but without nasal packing, nasal packing (Merocel), and simple nasal external compression, on the primary outcome of stopping anterior epistaxis bleeding within 15 minutes. RESULTS: Among the 135 patients enrolled, the median age was 60 years (interquartile range 25% to 75%: 48 to 72 years) and 70 patients (51.9%) were women. The success rate in the compression with tranexamic acid group was 91.1% (41 of 45 patients); in the nasal packing group, 93.3% (42 of 45 patients); and in the compression with saline solution group, 71.1% (32 of 45 patients). There was an overall statistically significant difference among the 3 treatment groups but no significant difference in pairwise comparison between the compression with tranexamic acid and nasal packing groups. In regard to no rebleeding within 24 hours, the study found rates of 86.7% in the tranexamic acid group, 74% in the nasal packing group, and 60% in the compression with saline solution group. CONCLUSION: Applying external compression after administering tranexamic acid through the nostrils by atomizer stops bleeding as effectively as anterior nasal packing using Merocel. In addition, the tranexamic acid approach is superior to Merocel in terms of decreasing rebleeding rates.

Bent, J. P., 3rd and B. P. Wood (1999). "Complications resulting from treatment of severe posterior epistaxis." J Laryngol Otol 113(3): 252-4.

            Recent advances in nasal endoscopy and arterial embolization have improved the treatment of severe posterior epistaxis. This report reviews the therapeutic options, including a case of epistaxis that did not respond to nasal packing but was successfully controlled with superselective arterial embolization. The discussion includes an outline of potential complications of epistaxis treatment, including a case of nasal septal perforation.

Birmingham, A. R., N. D. Mah, et al. (2018). "Topical tranexamic acid for the treatment of acute epistaxis in the emergency department." Am J Emerg Med 36(7): 1242-1245

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and potential benefits of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in the management of acute epistaxis. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed among all patients presenting to the institution's emergency department (ED) with epistaxis between September 2014 and August 2016. Patients achieving hemostasis with standard of care agents, such as oxymetazoline, lidocaine, or epinephrine were excluded. The primary outcome was the ED length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes included the incidence of hospital admission, otolaryngologist consultation, nasal packing, prophylactic antibiotic use, and ED visit for rebleeding within seven days of treatment. RESULTS: Among 122 patients, 30 received topical TXA (500mg injectable solution soaked onto packing material and applied to the affected nostril) and 92 were managed with standard care. Nearly half (46.7%) of TXA-treated subjects received TXA either alone or in combination with standard of care agents as their initial treatment strategy. No significant difference was observed in the ED LOS (272 vs 232min in TXA and standard care arms, respectively, p=0.26). However, TXA was associated with a significant reduction in otolaryngologist consults (30.0% vs 65.2%, p=0.002) and nasal packing (16.7% vs 23.9%, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This investigation did not demonstrate a significant difference in ED LOS among patients with acute epistaxis treated with topical TXA or standard care. However, this data does add to existing evidence that TXA may be associated with a reduction in resource utilization, suggesting it may provide more effective bleeding control. Overall, more data is needed to confirm the potential benefits of this practice.

Chen, S. t., T. Karnezis, et al. (2011). "Safety of intranasal Bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-associated epistaxis." Laryngoscope 121(3): 644-646.

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Assess for complications of intranasal Bevacizumab application in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)-associated epistaxis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: In 58 patients presenting with recurrent HHT epistaxis, Bevacizumab was applied intranasally either as a submucosal injection or as a topical spray between October 2006 and June 2010. In many of the injected patients, the potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser was used adjunctively for vessel photocoagulation. A phone interview was performed in July 2010 to assess for treatment complications. RESULTS: Of the 58 treated patients 52 were contacted. Patient surveys were performed 1.5 to 46 months following their initial Bevacizumab treatment. Within the treatment population, five patients had sustained a septal perforation. Notably, these patients were treated early in the study period at which time the cartilaginous septum was often both injected and lasered. Subsequently, the treatment protocol was changed and the cartilaginous septum was neither lasered nor injected. After these changes were made no additional septal perforations were identified. No other adverse events were associated with intranasal Bevacizumab treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab applied as either a submucosal injection or as a topical nasal spray, with or without application of the KTP laser, is a safe treatment regimen. Still, when Bevacizumab injections are performed, the cartilaginous nasal septum should be avoided as patients may develop septal perforations.

Doo, G. and D. S. Johnson (1999). "Oxymetazoline in the treatment of posterior epistaxis." Hawaii Med J 58(8):

            In this retrospective study, 36 patients were given oxymetazoline as a first step in treatment for posterior epistaxis. In 75% of the cases, epistaxis was effectively treated with oxymetazoline with no recurrent bleeding. All cases with recurrence resolved with continued administration of oxymetazoline. The results of this study propose a pharmacologic intervention for the treatment of posterior epistaxis.

Evans, J. A. and T. Rothenhaus (2007). "Epistaxis." Emedicine:

Gottlieb, M., J. M. DeMott, et al. (2019). "Topical Tranexamic Acid for the Treatment of Acute Epistaxis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis." Ann Pharmacother 53(6): 652-657.

OBJECTIVE: To compare topical tranexamic acid (TXA) with control groups for the treatment of acute epistaxis assessing bleeding cessation, discharge within 2 hours, rebleeding rates, complication rates, and patient satisfaction. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to November 2018. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All randomized controlled trials comparing topical TXA with control groups for the treatment of acute epistaxis in humans were included. There were no age, language, or date restrictions. Data were double extracted into a predefined worksheet, and quality analysis was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three studies (n = 408 patients) were identified. Topical TXA was not associated with a statistically significant difference in cessation of bleeding within 30 minutes. However, more patients were discharged within 2 hours of arrival, there were fewer episodes of rebleeding within both the first 24 hours and at 1 week, and there was higher patient satisfaction in the TXA group. There was no difference identified in complication rates. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: This review compares topical TXA with control groups for epistaxis and discusses the risks and benefits of adding this therapy to usual care. CONCLUSIONS: Topical TXA appears to be a reasonable option for the treatment of acute epistaxis, with reduced rebleeding rates, shorter discharge times, and minimal risk of complications. Topical TXA may be considered as part of the treatment of acute epistaxis.

Greher, M., T. Hartmann, et al. (1998). "Hypertension and pulmonary edema associated with subconjunctival phenylephrine in a 2-month-old child during cataract extraction." Anesthesiology 88(5): 1394-6.

Groudine, S. B., I. Hollinger, et al. (2000). "New York State guidelines on the topical use of phenylephrine in the operating room. The Phenylephrine Advisory Committee." Anesthesiology 92(3): 859-64.

Hady, M. R., K. Z. Kodeira, et al. (1983). "The effect of nasal packing on arterial blood gases and acid-base balance and its clinical importance." J Laryngol Otol 97(7): 599-604.

            Arterial blood samples were taken from adult healthy patients before and 24 hours after bilateral nasal packing. The blood samples were investigated for PO2, PCO2, HCO3, pH and Hb. It was found that there is (i) an increase of high significance of PCO2 and HCO3-, (ii)) a significant increase of percentage of Hb., (iii) a highly significant decrease of PO2 in patients after nasal packing; (iv) as regards the pH, no significant difference was found. What we suggest is that bilateral anterior nasal pack results in hypoxia and hypercapnia due to hypoventilation.

Hassen, G. W., P. Clemons, et al. (2018). "Is topical tranexamic acid a better alternative for selected cases of anterior epistaxis management in the ED?" Am J Emerg Med 36(4): 734 e731-734 e732

Epistaxis is a well-known problem that is mostly self-limited. In certain cases it requires packing or cauterization. Tranexamic acid has been tried and has shown promising results. Here we report a case of prolonged epistaxis in a patient on dual anti-platelet agent therapy.

Heymer, J., T. Schilling, et al. (2018). "Use of a mucosal atomization device for local application of tranexamic acid in epistaxis." Am J Emerg Med 36(12): 2327.

Joseph, J., P. Martinez-Devesa, et al. (2018). "Tranexamic acid for patients with nasal haemorrhage (epistaxis)." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12: CD004328

BACKGROUND: Epistaxis (nosebleed) most commonly affects children and the elderly. The majority of episodes are managed at home with simple measures. In more severe cases medical intervention is required to either cauterise the bleeding vessel, or to pack the nose with various materials. Tranexamic acid is used in a number of clinical settings to stop bleeding by preventing clot breakdown (fibrinolysis). It may have a role in the management of epistaxis as an adjunct to standard treatments, reducing the need for further intervention. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of tranexamic acid (oral, intravenous or topical) compared with placebo, no additional intervention or any other haemostatic agent in the management of patients with epistaxis. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register (via CRS Web); Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (via CRS Web); PubMed; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science;; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 29 October 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of tranexamic acid (in addition to usual care) compared with usual care plus placebo, usual care alone or usual care plus any other haemostatic agent, to control epistaxis in adults or children. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcomes were control of epistaxis: re-bleeding (as measured by the proportion of patients re-bleeding within a period of up to 10 days) and significant adverse effects (seizures, thromboembolic events). Secondary outcomes were control of epistaxis as measured by the time to stop initial bleeding (the proportion of patients whose bleeding is controlled within a period of up to 30 minutes); severity of re-bleeding (as measured by (a) the proportion of patients requiring any further intervention and (b) the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion); length of hospital stay and other adverse effects. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (692 participants). The overall risk of bias in the studies was low. Two studies assessed oral administration of tranexamic acid, given regularly over several days, and compared it to placebo. In the other four studies, a single application of topical tranexamic acid was compared with placebo (one study) and a combination of epinephrine and lidocaine or phenylephrine (three studies). All participants were adults. Tranexamic acid versus placebo For our primary outcome, control of epistaxis: re-bleeding (proportion re-bleeding within 10 days), we were able to pool data from three studies. The pooled result demonstrated a benefit of tranexamic acid compared to placebo, the risk of re-bleeding reducing from 67% to 47% (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 to 0.90; three studies; 225 participants; moderate-quality evidence).When we compared the effects of oral and topical tranexamic acid separately the risk of re-bleeding with oral tranexamic acid reduced from 69% to 49%, RR 0.73 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.96; two studies, 157 participants; moderate-quality evidence) and with topical tranexamic acid it reduced from 66% to 43%, RR 0.66 (95% CI 0.41 to 1.05; single study, 68 participants). We rated the quality of evidence provided by the single study as low, therefore it is uncertain whether topical tranexamic acid is effective in stopping bleeding in the 10-day period after a single application. No study specifically sought to identify and report our primary outcome: significant adverse effects (i.e. seizures, thromboembolic events).The secondary outcome time to stop initial bleeding (proportion with bleeding controlled within 30 minutes) was measured in one study using topical tranexamic acid and there was no evidence of a difference at 30 minutes (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.11; 68 participants; low-quality evidence).No studies reported the proportion of patients requiring any further intervention (e.g. repacking, surgery, embolisation).One study of oral tranexamic acid reported the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion and found no difference between groups: 5/45 (11%) versus 6/44 (14%) (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.48; 89 participants; low-quality evidence).Two studies reported hospital length of stay. One study reported a significantly shorter stay in the oral tranexamic acid group (mean difference (MD) -1.60 days, 95% CI -2.49 to -0.71; 68 participants). The other study found no evidence of a difference between the groups. Tranexamic acid versus other haemostatic agents. When we pooled the data from three studies the proportion of patients whose bleeding stopped within 10 minutes was significantly higher in the topical tranexamic acid group compared to the group receiving another haemostatic agent (70% versus 30%: RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.90 to 2.92; 460 participants) (moderate-quality evidence).Adverse effects across all studies. Five studies recorded 'adverse effects' in a general way. None found any difference between the groups in the occurrence of minor adverse effects (e.g. mild nausea and diarrhoea, 'bad taste' of gel). In one study a patient developed a superficial thrombophlebitis of both legs following discharge, however it is not reported in which group this occurred. No "other serious adverse effect" was reported in any study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate-quality evidence that there is probably a reduction in the risk of re-bleeding with the use of either oral or topical tranexamic acid in addition to usual care in adult patients with epistaxis, compared to placebo with usual care. However, the quality of evidence relating solely to topical tranexamic acid was low (one study only), so we are uncertain whether or not topical tranexamic acid is effective in stopping bleeding in the 10-day period after a single application. We found moderate-quality evidence that topical tranexamic acid is probably better than other topical agents in stopping bleeding in the first 10 minutes. There have been only three RCTs on this subject since 1995. Since then there have been significant changes in nasal cauterisation and packing techniques (for example, techniques including nasal endoscopy and more invasive approaches such as endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation). New trials would inform us about the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in light of these developments.

Kalyanaraman, M., R. L. Carpenter, et al. (1997). "Cardiopulmonary compromise after use of topical and submucosal alpha- agonists: possible added complication by the use of beta-blocker therapy." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117(1): 56-61.

            We report the specifics of 12 cases of severe hypertension after the intraoperative use of topical phenylephrine, submucosal epinephrine, or both. Ten of these 12 patients also developed severe pulmonary edema. Seven of the twelve were treated with beta blockers; 3 of whom suffered cardiac arrest. We propose a common mechanism: the vasoconstrictors caused systemic hypertension, increased left ventricular afterload, decreased left ventricular compliance, and decreased cardiac output. In those patients treated with beta blockers, decreased contractility and inability to increase heart rate further compromised cardiopulmonary function.

Kang, H. and S. H. Hwang (2019). "Does topical application of tranexamic acid reduce intraoperative bleeding in sinus surgery during general anesthesia?" Braz J Otorhinolaryngol.

INTRODUCTION: Tranexamic acid is a hemostatic agent, which inhibits fibrin degradation, which may be beneficial in controlling bleeding during surgery. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to provide a meta-analysis and review of the effects of tranexamic acid on hemorrhage and surgical fields and side effects on patients during endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS: Two authors independently searched six databases (Medline, SCOPUS, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane library) from the start of article collection until July 2018. Postoperative complications such as intraoperative bleeding, operative time, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, and coagulation profile were included in the analysis of tranexamic acid (Treatment Group) and placebo (Control Group) during the operation. RESULTS: The amount of blood loss during surgery was statistically lower in the treatment group compared to the placebo group, and the surgical field quality was statistically higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in operation time, hemodynamics, or coagulation profile between groups. In addition, tranexamic acid had no significant effect on vomiting and thrombosis compared to the Control Group. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis has shown that topical administration of tranexamic acid can reduce the amount of bleeding during surgery and improve the overall quality of the surgery. Hemodynamic instability during surgery, vomiting after surgery, or abnormal clotting profile were not reported. Additional studies are needed to confirm the results of this study because there are fewer studies.

Katz, R. I., A. R. Hovagim, et al. (1990). "A comparison of cocaine, lidocaine with epinephrine, and oxymetazoline for prevention of epistaxis on nasotracheal intubation." J Clin Anesth 2(1): 16-20.

            The alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline was compared to cocaine and to lidocaine with epinephrine with respect to prevention of epistaxis on nasotracheal intubation. The nares of three groups of 14 patients each were topically pretreated with 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (group 1), 10% cocaine (group 2), or 0.05% oxymetazoline (group 3) prior to nasotracheal intubation. After intubation, epistaxis was estimated on a scale of 0 to 3, with 0 indicating no bleeding, 1 representing blood on the nasotracheal tube only, 2 indicating blood pooling in the pharynx, and 3 representing blood in the pharynx sufficient to impede intubation. Only 29% of the patients in group 1 displayed no bleeding, whereas 57% of those in group 2 and 86% of those in group 3 had no bleeding. Nonparametric analysis showed a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.013) between oxymetazoline and lidocaine with epinephrine. In addition, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were examined prior to administration of the medications; at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes after administration of the medications; and after intubation. No significant differences were noted (p greater than 0.05) between the medications except for a slightly higher systolic BP for cocaine than for lidocaine with epinephrine at 15 minutes. The results of this double-blind, randomized trial demonstrate that the alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline is as effective as cocaine, and more effective than lidocaine with epinephrine, for the prevention of epistaxis associated with nasotracheal intubation.

Krempl, G. A. and A. D. Noorily (1995). "Use of oxymetazoline in the management of epistaxis." Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 104(9 Pt 1): 704-6.

            The purpose of this study was to determine if use of an intranasal vasoconstrictor (oxymetazoline) could be used to effectively treat epistaxis, avoiding nasal packing. The charts of 60 patients who presented to the emergency room with the diagnosis of epistaxis and who required medical management were reviewed. Sixty-five percent of these patients were successfully managed with oxymetazoline as their sole therapy. An additional 18% were managed successfully with silver nitrate cautery in combination with oxymetazoline. In only 17% of patients was it necessary to use nasal packing as treatment for epistaxis after an initial attempt with oxymetazoline alone or in combination with silver nitrate failed. These data suggest that pharmacologic management may be adequate in the majority of patients with epistaxis, thus avoiding the need for nasal packing with its associated complications.

Lennox, P., J. Hern, et al. (1996). "Local anaesthesia in flexible nasendoscopy. A comparison between cocaine and co-phenylcaine." J Laryngol Otol 110(6): 540-2.

            Flexible nasendoscopy is now an integral part of the diagnostic process in Otorhinolaryngology. Topical local anaesthesia is generally recommended and cocaine is usually the drug of choice in view of its concurrent vasoconstrictor action. However, it is expensive, a controlled drug and serious side effects have been reported. Co-phenylcaine forte is a new preparation which also has both local anaesthetic and vasoconstrictor properties. This study compares the efficacy of cocaine and Co-phenylcaine in flexible nasendoscopy and concludes that they provide similar local anaesthesia and vasoconstriction of the nasal mucosa. Co-phenylcaine forte can therefore be used as an alternative to cocaine in flexible nasendoscopy.

Logan, J. K. and H. Pantle (2016). "Role of topical tranexamic acid in the management of idiopathic anterior epistaxis in adult patients in the emergency department." Am J Health Syst Pharm 73(21): 1755-1759.

PURPOSE: The role of topical tranexamic acid in the management of anterior epistaxis in adult patients in the emergency department (ED) is examined. SUMMARY: The use of alternative agents for the treatment of epistaxis before the use of nasal packing may be reasonable due to patient discomfort, potential complications, and the need for follow-up with a healthcare provider for packing removal. One such agent is tranexamic acid. Two published studies evaluated the off-label use of topical tranexamic acid for the treatment of epistaxis. The first trial compared the efficacy of a topical gel containing 10% tranexamic acid with a placebo gel containing glycerin for the treatment of epistaxis. The percentage of patients whose bleeding ceased within 30 minutes of the intervention did not significantly differ between the tranexamic acid and placebo groups (p = 0.16). The second trial compared the efficacy of cotton pledgets soaked in the i.v. formulation of tranexamic acid inserted into the bleeding naris with standard nasal packing therapy. Bleeding cessation occurred within 10 minutes in 71% of the tranexamic acid group versus 31.2% of the standard treatment group (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-3.09; p < 0.001). Additional information is necessary to fully evaluate the role of topical tranexamic acid in treatment algorithms; however, the use of topical tranexamic acid may be beneficial in select populations. CONCLUSION: Topical tranexamic acid may have a role in the treatment of anterior epistaxis in select ED patients, though additional studies are needed to confirm its role in treatment algorithms.

Monte, E. D., M. J. Belmont, et al. (1999). "Management paradigms for posterior epistaxis: A comparison of costs and complications." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121(1): 103-6.

            OBJECTIVES: Posterior epistaxis is a common otolaryngologic emergency. Management is controversial because of the many treatment options available. These options vary in efficacy, rates of complications, and cost. Posterior nasal packing is the medical management most frequently used to control posterior epistaxis. It is associated with major complications, including stroke, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and death. Because of these potential complications, many otolaryngologists monitor patients with posterior nasal packing in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, the level of care used to monitor these patients is variable, and standards have not been established. METHODS: From 1991 to 1997, 46 patients had posterior nasal packing placed to control epistaxis. Management, complications, and hospital charges were analyzed. RESULTS: Six patients (13%) were admitted to the ICU, 2 (4%) were admitted for telemetry monitoring, and 38 (83%) were sent to the ENT ward for continuous pulse oximetry. Four major complications occurred (1 episode of syncope [emergency department], 2 arrhythmias [ICU], and 1 death [hospice]). Twenty-six patients were treated with posterior packing in the ENT ward, at a mean cost of $2988. Fourteen patients underwent intervention (5 ligations, 6 endoscopic cauterizations, and 3 angiograms), with a mean cost of $5482. Six patients spent time in the ICU, with a mean cost of $8242. Patients treated in the ENT ward had significantly lower costs than those undergoing intervention (P = 0.017) or those admitted to the ICU (P = 0.020). CONCLUSION: We propose that most patients with posterior epistaxis can be treated in specialized ENT wards. This can be done without increasing complications and with significantly decreased costs.

Morgenstern, J., S. Rangarajan, et al. (2018). "Hot Off the Press: Topical Tranexamic Acid Compared With Anterior Nasal Packing for Treatment of Epistaxis in Patients Taking Antiplatelet Drugs." Acad Emerg Med 25(9): 1062-1064.

O'Hanlon, J. and K. W. Harper (1994). "Epistaxis and nasotracheal intubation--prevention with vasoconstrictor spray." Ir J Med Sci 163(2): 58-60.

            Eighty patients having anaesthesia for oral surgery requiring nasal intubation were randomly allocated to be intubated with either a plain Magill red rubber or cuffed polyethylene endotracheal tube and in a double blind manner, to receive xylometazoline 0.1% vasoconstrictor nasal spray. The extent of any epistaxis occurring was assessed by an independent observer. With the Magill tube there was bleeding in one out of twenty patients in both the vasoconstrictor group and non vasoconstrictor group at intubation and no bleeding in either of the two groups at extubation. With the polyethylene tube sixteen out of twenty patients had bleeding in the non vasoconstrictor group. This improved to seven out of twenty with the administration of vasoconstrictor drops at intubation (chi square 10.2; p &lt; 0.01) in the polyethylene tube group. At extubation ten out of twenty patients had bleeding in the non vasoconstrictor group improving to two out of twenty with the administration of the vasoconstrictor (chi square 9.6; p,0.01). The use of the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline helped to reduce epistaxis that occurred during nasal intubation and further study into the type of endotracheal tube is recommended.

Riegle, E. V., J. B. Gunter, et al. (1992). "Comparison of vasoconstrictors for functional endoscopic sinus surgery in children." Laryngoscope 102(7): 820-823.

Three different vasoconstricting agents were evaluated during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in 57 children. Oxymetazoline hydrochloride 0.05%, phenylephrine hydrochloride 0.25%, or cocaine 4% was applied to the nasal mucosa in a prospective, randomized, double-blind fashion. Heart rate and blood pressure changes were recorded 5 and 10 minutes after application of the study vasoconstrictor to each nostril. The surgeon's subjective impressions of bleeding and visualization were recorded for each side of the nose, as were total blood loss and anesthesia time. Although all three vasoconstrictors were tolerated well by the children, there was a suggestion that heart rate decreased more at 5 minutes with phenylephrine than with oxymetazoline or cocaine (P = .08) and that blood pressure increased more at 10 minutes with phenylephrine than with oxymetazoline or cocaine (P = .1). No arrhythmias were noted. Subjective scoring for bleeding showed that children receiving oxymetazoline were less likely to receive scores of "more" bleeding than usual (3/38 vs. 10/34 for phenylephrine and 10/35 for cocaine, P less than .02). Subjective scoring for visualization showed that children receiving oxymetazoline were also less likely to receive scores of "worse" visualization than usual (3/38 vs. 12/38 for phenylephrine and 9/35 for cocaine, P less than .01). There was no difference in surgical bleeding or visualization between children receiving phenylephrine and children receiving cocaine. In our institution, 0.05% oxymetazoline is the preferred vasoconstrictor for FESS in children.

Sarkar, D. and J. Martinez (2019). "Use of Atomized Intranasal Tranexamic Acid as an Adjunctive Therapy in Difficult-to-Treat Epistaxis." J Spec Oper Med 19(2): 23-28.

There is a growing body of literature on the safe, effective use of tranexamic acid (TXA) for hemostasis in a variety of clinical settings. We present a case series of three patients with difficult-to-treat epistaxis where standard treatment methods were not effective. Using atomized intranasal TXA (ATXA) as part of a stepwise treatment approach, we were able to achieve hemostasis and manage all three cases independently, and we did so without major complications in our emergency department (ED). Given recent literature showing the underuse of TXA in combat casualties, ATXA, if formulated and delivered properly, may be of benefit for epistaxis and other significant hemorrhage cases. Further work must be done to elucidate the mechanism of action, specific dose, delivery method, use indications, and safety profile of ATXA.

Whitworth, K., J. Johnson, et al. (2020). "Comparative Effectiveness of Topically Administered Tranexamic Acid Versus Topical Oxymetazoline Spray for Achieving Hemostasis in Epistaxis." J Emerg Med 58(2): 211-216.

BACKGROUND: The use of tranexamic acid (TXA) has recently gained popularity as a treatment modality for epistaxis in the emergency department. Previous studies have compared topical TXA to nasal packing. However, topical TXA has not yet been compared with topical oxymetazoline in the treatment of epistaxis. OBJECTIVES: This study compares the efficacy of the intravenous formulation of TXA applied topically vs. the vasoconstrictor oxymetazoline applied topically in achieving hemostasis in patients presenting to the emergency department with anterior epistaxis. METHODS: In this prospective study, patients presenting to the emergency department with the chief complaint of epistaxis, and meeting inclusion criteria, were allocated into 2 treatment groups; topical oxymetazoline vs. topical application of the intravenous preparation of TXA. Patients were assessed for time to hemostasis in the emergency department as well as the occurrence of rebleeding within the next 48 h after discharge. RESULTS: Hemostasis was achieved in 14 (78%) of the 18 patients in the TXA group compared with 7 (35%) of the 20 patients in the oxymetazoline group. While there were occurrences of rebleeding in the emergency department before discharge and at 48 h in both groups, 11 patients in the TXA group had no recurrence of bleeding compared with 5 in the oxymetazoline group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the topical application of the intravenous preparation of TXA is more effective than topical oxymetazoline for achievement of hemostasis in anterior epistaxis. This has clinical significance toward preventing an avoidable need for escalation of treatment that could include applying nasal packing or cautery as well as preventing avoidable return emergency department visits. These outcomes would increase cost, potentially increase patient discomfort, and prolong emergency department throughput time.

Zahed, R., P. Moharamzadeh, et al. (2013). "A new and rapid method for epistaxis treatment using injectable form of tranexamic acid topically: a randomized controlled trial." Am J Emerg Med 31(9): 1389-1392.

OBJECTIVE: Epistaxis is a common problem in the emergency department (ED). Sixty percent of people experience it at least once in their life. There are different kinds of treatment for epistaxis. This study intended to evaluate the topical use of injectable form of tranexamic acid vs anterior nasal packing with pledgets coated with tetracycline ointment. METHODS: Topical application of injectable form of tranexamic acid (500 mg in 5 mL) was compared with anterior nasal packing in 216 patients with anterior epistaxis presented to an ED in a randomized clinical trial. The time needed to arrest initial bleeding, hours needed to stay in hospital, and any rebleeding during 24 hours and 1 week later were recorded, and finally, the patient satisfaction was rated by a 0-10 scale. RESULTS: Within 10 minutes of treatment, bleedings were arrested in 71% of the patients in the tranexamic acid group, compared with 31.2% in the anterior nasal packing group (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-3.09; P < .001). In addition, 95.3% in the tranexamic acid group were discharged in 2 hours or less vs 6.4% in the anterior nasal packing group (P < .001). Rebleeding was reported in 4.7% and 11% of patients during first 24 hours in the tranexamic acid and the anterior nasal packing groups, respectively (P = .128). Satisfaction rate was higher in the tranexamic acid compared with the anterior nasal packing group (8.5 +/- 1.7 vs 4.4 +/- 1.8, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Topical application of injectable form of tranexamic acid was better than anterior nasal packing in the initial treatment of idiopathic anterior epistaxis.

Zahed, R., M. H. Mousavi Jazayeri, et al. (2018). "Topical Tranexamic Acid Compared With Anterior Nasal Packing for Treatment of Epistaxis in Patients Taking Antiplatelet Drugs: Randomized Controlled Trial." Acad Emerg Med 25(3): 261-266.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of topical application of the injectable form of tranexamic acid (TXA) compared with anterior nasal packing (ANP) for the treatment of epistaxis in patients taking antiplatelet drugs (aspirin, clopidogrel, or both) who presented to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: A randomized, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted at two EDs. A total of 124 participants were randomized to receive topical TXA (500 mg in 5 mL) or ANP, 62 patients per group. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in each group whose bleeding had stopped at 10 minutes. Secondary outcomes were the rebleeding rate at 24 hours and 1 week, ED length of stay (LOS), and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Within 10 minutes of treatment, bleeding was stopped in 73% of the patients in the TXA group, compared with 29% in the ANP group (difference = 44%, 95% confidence interval, 26% to 57%; p < 0.001). Additionally, rebleeding was reported in 5 and 10% of patients during the first 24 hours in the TXA and the ANP groups, respectively. At 1 week, 5% of patients in the TXA group and 21% of patients in the ANP group had experienced recurrent bleeding (p = 0.007). Patients in the TXA group reported higher satisfaction scores (median [interquartile range {IQR}], 9 [8-9.25]) compared with the ANP group (median [IQR] = 4 [3-5]; p < 0.001). Discharge from the ED in <2 hours was achieved in 97% of patients in the TXA group versus 13% in the ANP group (p < 0.001). There were no adverse events reported in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, epistaxis treatment with topical application of TXA resulted in faster bleeding cessation, less rebleeding at 1 week, shorter ED LOS, and higher patient satisfaction compared with ANP.